Water abstraction entails abstracting raw water from a source and conveying it to a distribution network or to a treatment facility, depending on the raw water quality. Water abstraction energy requirements and GHG emissions can be affected by some of the other stages in the water cycle, as noted on the left side column. However, other factors can impact this stage’s energy consumption and GHG emissions:

  • Water resource availability: not taking more from the environment than it can sustainably provide may require to reduce the volumes abstracted from a specific source.
  • Type of source (groundwater, surface water, rainwater, sea), which implies different pumping requirements or energy recovery potentials.
  • Energy source (renewable, fossil fuels, grid energy mix).
  • Pumping efficiency.
  • Water loss in water abstraction / transmission
Impacted by: Impacts:
Drinking Water Treatment

The distance and elevation of the drinking water treatment facilities will dictate how much energy is needed to pump the water from the source to the treatment.

Drinking Water Treatment

The quality of the water abstracted defines the treatment required; hence the energy required.

Drinking Water Distribution

Water loss in the distribution systems increases the volume of water abstracted and its associated energy requirements.

End users

End users could be inclined to reduce their water usage if they knew the water came from a limited source (water scarcity).

End users

The volume of water abstraction is driven by the demand of end users and how efficient they are in their water use.

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