Although water is an abundant resource, climate change is affecting the hydrological cycle. According to scenarios done by the Meteorological National Institute using PRECIS regional model, an important rainfall reduction with risk of droughts is expected on the Pacific Coast watersheds and the North, while an increase of rainfall with risk of floods is expected on the Caribbean Coast watersheds.
Costa Rica’s efforts to meet international agreements regarding mitigation and adaptation to climate change have been undeniable. The strong ecosystem conservation agenda of the country has significantly contributed to making climate actions more robust.
Even as the world looks to step up efforts to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the need to adapt to the impacts of climate change already locked in are just as important. The sixth edition of the UNEP Adaptation Gap Report: The Gathering Storm looks at how the world is doing in adapting to these intensifying impacts.
Water security is at the heart of healthy and prosperous societies. European countries’ prosperity depends on their ability to maintain the gains they have achieved in water security and address new and rising challenges. Nature Based Solutions can be deployed to address water challenges related to surface water quality, groundwater quality, floods and water scarcity. This report outlines a strategic vision to mobilise greater investments in nature to address Europe’s outstanding water security challenges.
The Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report assesses the impacts of climate change, looking at ecosystems, biodiversity, and human communities at global and regional levels. It also reviews vulnerabilities and the capacities and limits of the natural world and human societies to adapt to climate change.
The report is organized as follows. The next section puts the study into context by briefly discussing the global EACC study and the EACC methodology, which was applied in this study at a more disaggregated level. The section highlights the differential impacts of climate change among different regions of the world, including Africa. Chapter three presents an overview of the methodology used, including the key assumptions. An effort has been made to present this information in nontechnical language where possible. The more technical aspects of the study can be found in the annexes. The sector results are contained in chapter four. The chapter begins with an overview of the Ghanaian economy, followed by the climate projections for Ghana and the overall economic impacts. Next, the results for each sector are presented in three parts: climate change impacts, the adaptation options, and the adaptation costs. The final chapter concludes with a summary and policy implications.
The impacts of climate change on agriculture are projected to be significant in coming decades, so response strategies, and their likely costs, should be evaluated now. That is why this study produced an open-access, crop-climate-economic impact modeling platform for Latin America and the Caribbean, that can be extended to other regions, then modified and improved by users as new crop, climate, and economic datasets become available. The new platform projects the likely impacts of agroclimatic factors on crop productivity, on the basis of climate projections from two general circulation models, and couples it with an economic model to derive and evaluate a range of climate-change scenarios and likely agricultural productivity and economic impacts over the next several decades.
The report is part of a broader study, the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC), which has two objectives: (a) to develop a global estimate of adaptation costs for informing international climate negotiations; and (b) to help decision makers in developing countries assess the risks posed by climate change and design national strategies for adapting to it. This paper is one of a series of country-level studies, where national data were disaggregated to more local and sector levels, helping to understand adaptation from a bottom-up perspective. Ethiopia is heavily dependent on rainfed agriculture. Its geographical location and topography in combination with low adaptive capacity entail a high vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. Historically the country has been prone to extreme weather variability. Rainfall is highly erratic, most rain falls with high intensity, and there is a high degree of variability in both time and space. Since the early 1980s, the country has suffered seven major droughts five of which have led to famines in addition to dozens of local droughts. Major floods also occurred in different parts of the country in 1988, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 2006. Climate projections obtained from the GCMs referred to above suggest an increase in rainfall variability with a rising frequency of both severe flooding and droughts due to global warming.
The problem of climate change involves a fundamental failure of markets, namely that those who cause damage by emitting greenhouse gases generally do not pay. This global problem requires a collaborative, global response. Leadership, acceptance of differentiated responsibilities, emission targets and trading must be at the heart of any future global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Developed countries must lead the way in taking action by: adopting ambitious emission reduction targets of their own; promoting rapid
technological progress to mitigate the effects of climate change; supporting programs to combat deforestation; encouraging effective market
mechanisms; and honoring their aid commitments to the developing countries
The Water Climate Discussion series is creating a space to come together and help the water sector build its leading role in addressing the climate crisis. The series is the result of close collaboration between water institutions who have come together recognizing climate change as an existential threat and wish to have a voice promoting a key message: water is climate.
This report has been produced based on the discussion lead by Lucien Damiba from WaterAid, Trevor Bishop of WRSE, and the participants’ interaction during the first discussion of the series: Adaptation and Resilience, on Thursday, 13 May 2021. Chapter numbers refer to chapter markers in the video recording of the discussion.