Energy Efficiency Drivers in Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Double Bootstrap DEA Analysis

The results show that the variables with a significant influence on efficiency are the chemical oxygen demand concentration; plant capacity; rate of used capacity, which positively affects efficiency; weight of industrial customers, which exerts a negative impact; and aeration system, with a negative impact for turbines. This article suggests the adoption of an effective control tool to monitor the costs, drivers and energy expenditure of water utilities.

Study of published WWTP energy data – more than 500 WWPTs

In this report representative  energy  data from several  countries was
gathered by  a team  to  create a  reference database. Best practises and
best-case scenarios for benchmarking were identified. The information was
retrieved from several sources such  as journals, reports,  direct  communication
with the stakeholders, mandatory EU registers etc. The team was able to
gather energy data from 588 wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs).

Modelling the bioenergy potential of municipal wastewater treatment plants

The present paper deals with designing a tool to answer the following research questions:
Which bioenergy potentials occur in different plant types? Which mass and
energy flows are related to the specific potentials? Which utilisation processes for
the potentials can lead to a high energy recovery efficiency of WWTS? Preliminary
analyses with the designed tool were focused on estimating the level of electric and
thermal energy self-sufficiency of different plant configuration scenarios including
or excluding digester gas and/or sludge utilisation units. First results based on the
level of self-sufficiency and associated energy and disposal costs show that a
digester gas and sewage sludge utilisation should be considered when designing
future WWTS.

Energy Recovery from the Water Cycle: Thermal Energy from Drinking Water

For a specific case, the effects of cold recovery from drinking water were analyzed on three decisive criteria: the effect on the GHG emissions, the financial implications, and the effect on the microbiological drinking water quality. It is shown that cold recovery from drinking water results in a 90% reduction of GHG emissions, and that it has a positive financial business case: Total Cost of Ownership reduced with 17%. The microbial drinking water quality is not affected, but biofilm formation in the drinking water pipes increased after cold recovery.


This resource is included, even though it refers to a single technology, as it provides interesting insights on the financing model. This technology is available from other vendors.

Factsheet – Microturbines installed in water pipes allow converting the hydraulic potential energy loss resulting from the hydraulic design and the topography into electrical energy.

Resource recovery from wastewater in Austria: wastewater treatment plants as regional energy cells

This paper describes the estimation of total energy consumption and generation and the related degree of energetic self-sufficiency at certain Austrian WWTPs. Preliminary results regarding the development of a tool for evaluating and optimising on-site and externally supplied use of energy are presented. Finally, the possibilities of energy supply for neighbouring spatial structures are discussed briefly and conclusions drawn about the potential to develop WWTPs as regional energy cells.

Urban water networks as an alternative source for district heating and emergency heat-wave cooling

Three emergency cold recovery techniques are presented as a response to heat-waves: subway station cooling, ice production for individual cooling, and “heat-wave shelter” cooling in association with pavement-watering. The cold generation potential of each approach is assessed with a special consideration for mains water temperature sanitary limitations. Finally, technical obstacles and perspectives are discussed.

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