The removal or degradation of pharmaceutical compounds present in the urine or other real wastewater matrices mixed or contaminated with urine is a foremost necessity due to the frequent notifications of various multi-drug resistance based disease outbreaks in whole biosphere. Thus, these compounds are subsequently required to be removed from the urine matrix before their dissolution into the bulk or sewage wastewater streams. Therefore, urine collection at source followed by in-situ or separate ex-situ treatment has been proposed to effectively treat a limited volume of concentrated pharmaceutical compounds present in a small batch. The additional benefit of this source separated urine treatment is the possibility of efficiently recovering nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium based nutrients.
Based upon the system head conditions, pumps may be able to pump at higher rates than needed when operating at 100% motor speed. This flow rate can be controlled by one of two ways, throttling the pump with a valve if the pump is a constant speed pump, or changing the motor speed with a variable speed drive. The former is only energy efficient if the higher flow operating point of the pump without throttling is to the right of the best efficiency point on the pump performance curve, and the throttling results in reducing the flow to a point closer to the best efficiency point on the pump curve. Otherwise, throttling the pump can result in using more energy than at the higher flow, as well as wasting energy because you end up using more energy than is needed. When the demand on the system fluctuates significantly, the pumping rate can be controlled automatically by varying the speed of the motor with a variable frequency drive (VFD), such that the pump output matches only what is needed to meet demands or the intended pumping conditions. The pump’s flow rate then increases or decreases based upon the affinity laws and the controlled speed of the motor. This way lower pumping rates can be achieved, which may result in lower efficiency than those at full motor speed; however, the energy consumption is still lower because the energy requirements to pump lower flows at lower heads are lower.
Carbon emissions smoked – Helpful microbes inhale CO2 through a porous cylindrical electrode and exude useful chemicals.
A greenhouse gas (GHG) calculator tool (Biosolids Emissions Assessment Model, BEAM) was developed for the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to allow municipalities to estimate GHG emissions from biosolids management. The tool was developed using data from peer-reviewed literature and municipalities. GHG emissions from biosolids processing through ﬁnal end use/disposal were modeled. Emissions from nine existing programs in Canada were estimated using the model. The program that involved dewatering followed by combustion resulted in the highest GHG emissions (Mg CO2e 100 Mg-1 biosolids (dry wt.). The programs that had digestion followed by land application resulted in the lowest emissions (-26 and -23 Mg CO2 e100 Mg-1 biosolids (drywt.). Transportation had relatively minor effects on overall emissions. The greatest areas of uncertainty in the model include N2O emissions from land application and biosolids processing. The model suggests that targeted use of biosolids and optimizing processes to avoid CH4 and N2O emissions can result in signiﬁcant GHG savings.
The objective of this technical note is to inform utility managers and technical decision makers in East Asian countries about appropriate technologies available for wastewater treatment with energy recovery processes.
Study focused on amount of methane that is emitted from a plant, but also of the possible sources and sinks of methane on the plant. In this study, the methane emission from a full- scale municipal wastewater facility with sludge digestion was evaluated during one year.
This article provides a comprehensive review on water desalination modules, operated by conventional and/or renewable energy that convert saline water into fresh water for drinking purposes.
This paper presents the development of an ongoing research project aiming at setting-up an innovative mathematical model platform for the design and management of WWTPs. The final goal of the project by means of this platform is to minimize the environmental impact of WWTPs through their optimization in terms of energy consumptions and emissions, which can be regarded as discharged pollutants, sludge and GHGs.
The results show that the variables with a significant influence on efficiency are the chemical oxygen demand concentration; plant capacity; rate of used capacity, which positively affects efficiency; weight of industrial customers, which exerts a negative impact; and aeration system, with a negative impact for turbines. This article suggests the adoption of an effective control tool to monitor the costs, drivers and energy expenditure of water utilities.
In this report representative energy data from several countries was
gathered by a team to create a reference database. Best practises and
best-case scenarios for benchmarking were identified. The information was
retrieved from several sources such as journals, reports, direct communication
with the stakeholders, mandatory EU registers etc. The team was able to
gather energy data from 588 wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs).