In this report representative energy data from several countries was
gathered by a team to create a reference database. Best practises and
best-case scenarios for benchmarking were identified. The information was
retrieved from several sources such as journals, reports, direct communication
with the stakeholders, mandatory EU registers etc. The team was able to
gather energy data from 588 wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs).
In this report the results of literature research and comparison
with data of case studies of full scale enhanced primary treatment units
are shown and compared to each other. Specific indicators for
the comparison are defined followed by identification of available
alternative technologies for primary treatment at municipal
wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).
This brochure gives an overview on joint research projects of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, which initiated the funding measure “Future-oriented Technologies
and Concepts for an Energy-efficient and Resource-saving Water Management” in 2012. Results show that the water-energy-nexus gives the crucial incentive for new energy and resource efficient solutions.
The document is a guideline and tool for water utilities to evaluate, identify and implement measures for reducing the energy consumption in their treatment systems.
The document focuses on identifying the economic, financial and environmental benefits of wastewater recycling from the perspective of public spending. Also provides information on the evolution and current practices of wastewater recycling internationally and the international and national regulatory and policy frameworks that guide wastewater recycling. It presents possible strategies for city and state planners and policy makers to initiate the discourse on wastewater recycling and reuse.
This factsheet provides a concise reference describing the sources of methane emissions in WW plants, and opportunities for methane recover and utlization. Additional two case studies are included describing recovery and use of methane within WWTPs globally.
This article reviews three different ways to reduce GHG emission in wastewater treatment plants: (1) Minimization through change in operational parameters, (2) Treatment of the gaseous streams, and (3) Prevention by applying new configurations and processes to reduce both pollutants and GHG emissions.
This review covers state-of-the-art technologies for advanced anaerobic digestion of municipal sewage sludge. It is based on an extensive review of literature and available data, focussing on processes which have been realized in full-scale plants. The review includes information on single-stage mesophilic digestion, thermophilic digestion, temperature-phased digestion, high-load digestion and other process modifications, as well as mechanical, thermal, chemical, and biological disintegration methods. All processes are described with a set of key performance indicators such as degradation rate of volatile solids, biogas yield, return load, effects on dewatering, and capital costs.
Water and energy are two of the most important resources of the 21st century. Water is required to supply energy and, at the same time, energy is required to supply water. In urban water management, the key factor is warm water heating. Depending on the quality of the raw water, the
provision of drinking water requires the application of different process technologies; the more complex the methods, the higher the energy demand. As in metropolitan areas, in particular, water consumption exceeds local availability, water pipelines are necessary with respective energy demand. The reuse of water can contribute significantly to conserve water and energy resources. Usually, the water to be reclaimed is supplied locally, making long-distance transport dispensable. By adjusting the process technology to the intended function (fit for purpose), it is possible to minimize the energy demand as well. Water use implies the input of energy (heat, chemically bound energy in form of organic matter) as well as nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.). In the context of implementing water reuse technologies, they can also be reclaimed.
Gives a broad picture of wastewater treatment and reuse; its safe use as a fundamental aspect in water efficiency and security; technologies and biological processes for the treatment of wastewater destined for reuse, policies and regulations for the reuse of wastewater in some countries of Latin America (document is in Spanish).