A model-based approach for reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions of drinking water transmission systems: a WaCCliM Project Case Study

The Water and Wastewater Companies for Climate Mitigation (WaCCliM) project aims to improve the efficiency of water and wastewater companies in Mexico, Peru, Thailand, and Jordan, reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and improve the carbon balance of the water sector, while maintaining and/or improving service levels. As part of the project, hydraulic modelling software was used to simulate the Cusco, Peru drinking water transmission system and evaluate various scenarios (water loss reduction, pump replacement, and system reconfiguration) and their energy impacts. Results showed the transmission system’s pumping energy could be reduced up to 40 percent depending on the scenario. A holistic view on the total urban water cycle has also helped to identify that a combined effort to conserve water at the end user level, reduce water loss, reuse water, and rainwater harvesting will ultimately make the biggest impact on the transmission system’s energy consumption and GHG emissions, and lead to the most sustainable and resilient urban water management for SEDACUSCO and the City. This study has also demonstrated that water distribution system models can play an invaluable role in water utility climate change mitigation and adaptation planning.


In this paper, a case study of the implementation of advanced control software is presented, to control both the production flow, using an adaptive demand forecasting model, and the pump pressure by applying dynamic pressure control.

Energy Recovery from the Water Cycle: Thermal Energy from Drinking Water

For a specific case, the effects of cold recovery from drinking water were analyzed on three decisive criteria: the effect on the GHG emissions, the financial implications, and the effect on the microbiological drinking water quality. It is shown that cold recovery from drinking water results in a 90% reduction of GHG emissions, and that it has a positive financial business case: Total Cost of Ownership reduced with 17%. The microbial drinking water quality is not affected, but biofilm formation in the drinking water pipes increased after cold recovery.

Pressure-driven demand and leakage simulation for water distribution networks

A novel steady-state network simulation model that fully integrates, into a classical hydraulic representation, pressure-driven demand and leakage at the pipe level is developed and presented here. After presenting a brief literature review about leakage modelling, the importance of a more realistic simulation model allowing for leakage analysis is demonstrated. Then, the algorithm is tested from a numerical standpoint and subjected to a convergence analysis. These analyses are performed on a case study involving two networks derived from real systems. Experimentally observed convergence/error statistics demonstrate the high robustness of the proposed pressure-driven demand and leakage simulation model.

Water Well Rehabilitation and Reconstruction

This is the first professional’s guide to every aspect of pollution control for all types of water bodies. From at-the-source prevention to technical treatment solutions, the Water QualityControl Handbook brings readers expert guidance on assessing,controlling, eliminating, and remediating the many factors that contribute to water pollution.

Strategic alliance for water loss reduction

On this website you will find background information, know-how and best practices on the reduction of water loss from supply networks.

It also provides downloadable guidelines for the sustainable planning and implementation of water loss reduction projects and also offers several training modules.

Water loss management: A case study in Korea. Water Practice & Technology

A case of water loss management on a small city whose water supply is approximately 34,000 ?/day is examined. Revenue water ratio was just 55% mostly because of water loss caused by old pipes and difficulties in pipeline management in the beginning 2004. From 2005 to 2006, 50 km of pipe was replaced due to leaks, poor resultant water quality, blockage or corrosion. In all the new pipes, water meters and valves were replaced as well. This has already led to water savings, and the city plans to continue maintaining and replacing pipes as needed. Overall, through systematic management and rehabilitation/replacement of pipelines, water leakage has decreased dramatically, and the revenue water ratio has increased from 55% to 70% in just 2 years.

WaCCliM Roadmap

The WaCCliM Roadmap provides an overview of the steps and actions that water utilities can take towards energy efficiency and carbon neutrality. Navigate through the knowledge platform for an interactive experience of the different steps and additional resources.

ECAM tool

The Energy efficiency and Carbon Assessment and Monitoring (ECAM) tool will be introduced. Its purpose, specifications, technical potential and limitations will be discussed. Additionally, an overview of the ECAM tool structure, including aspects like performance indicators (PIs) and variables. An example of the initial assessment will be provided as well as the input datasheet, which is fundamental tool for the initial steps of the analysis.

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