The information in this annex captures the solutions inventory as shown on the knowledge platform as of December 2018. It is recommended to go to the online portal to explore resources associated to these solutions and potential new solutions that might have been added since.
Use of supervisory, control, and data acquisition (SCADA) system for monitoring, supervision and controlling of pumping systems can help minimize energy consumption of GHG emissions. It includes measurements in real time of water levels, pressures, flows, energy consumption and other operational parameters. It also helps to adjust and control the pump station operation, contributing to fight water losses or infiltration, reduce pumping during energy peak hours and adjust pumping volumes to the needs of the system. The SCADA systems provide utility managers with access to real-time operating data and can help offset the higher operating costs by minimizing unplanned downtime and improving maintenance plans. The SCADA system can also be used to optimize pumping in real-time through advanced pump optimization software and control, or through either a model-based or knowledge-based optimization that is implemented via a rule-based system programmed into the SCADA system. This type of optimization entails the use of algorithms to determine the best pumping scheme for a given situation. This can incorporate the peak energy times previously referenced, but also a prioritization of which pumps or pumping stations are used to maximize efficiency whenever possible. For example, if only a certain volume is demanded, then the SCADA system will first operate the most efficient pumps or pumping stations to meet the demand until greater capacity or more pumps are needed.
Based upon the system head conditions, pumps may be able to pump at higher rates than needed when operating at 100% motor speed. This flow rate can be controlled by one of two ways, throttling the pump with a valve if the pump is a constant speed pump, or changing the motor speed with a variable speed drive. The former is only energy efficient if the higher flow operating point of the pump without throttling is to the right of the best efficiency point on the pump performance curve, and the throttling results in reducing the flow to a point closer to the best efficiency point on the pump curve. Otherwise, throttling the pump can result in using more energy than at the higher flow, as well as wasting energy because you end up using more energy than is needed. When the demand on the system fluctuates significantly, the pumping rate can be controlled automatically by varying the speed of the motor with a variable frequency drive (VFD), such that the pump output matches only what is needed to meet demands or the intended pumping conditions. The pump’s flow rate then increases or decreases based upon the affinity laws and the controlled speed of the motor. This way lower pumping rates can be achieved, which may result in lower efficiency than those at full motor speed; however, the energy consumption is still lower because the energy requirements to pump lower flows at lower heads are lower.
Download these figures and text elements from the ‘Roadmap to a Low-Carbon Urban Water Utility’ and feel free to use them in internal and external communications, crediting WaCCliM 2018.
This resource is included, even though it refers to a single technology, as it provides interesting insights on the financing model. This technology is available from other vendors.
Factsheet – Microturbines installed in water pipes allow converting the hydraulic potential energy loss resulting from the hydraulic design and the topography into electrical energy.
One of the main challenges faced by Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is the control of algae blooms. High algae concentrations create problems for process performance and increase operating expenditure for cleaning and maintenance activities.
At the Davyhulme wastewater treatment works (WWTW) in Greater Manchester, United Utilities is generating renewable energy from sewage gas that is created from sludge left behind after the treatment of wastewater. United Utilities spent £100 million on the programme that leaves the sludge behind to be used to power the site. At the site 90,000 tonnes of sludge is being processed a year. Clarke Energy has supplied 2 new GE’s Jenbacher JMS620 GS-BL gas engines and re-located 3 x JMS620 GS-BL existing engines to Davyhulme for this project, together creating 12.0MW of renewable power. This is the equivalent of powering over 10,000 typical UK homes.
This tutorial deals with pump cavitation, discussing various net positive suction head required (NPSHR) criteria, net positive suction head available (NPSHA) margins and impeller life expectancy. It gives an introduction to the subject matter and provides insights on particulars like cavitation inception, 3 percent head drop, and 40,000 hours impeller life, as well as NPSH scaling laws. It further devotes attention to the effect of dissolved gases and thermal suppression (i.e., thermodynamic effect). With regard to numerical prediction capabilities the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) shall be discussed. Furthermore, guidance for cavitation damage diagnosis shall be given, including the peculiar aspects of various cavitation modes, the prediction of cavitation erosion rate, and assessment of impeller life expectancy. The tutorial will further address NPSHR criteria and NPSHA margin factors.
Maintaining a disinfectant residual in water distribution systems WDSs is generally considered paramount to ensuring a safe drinking water supply. This objective can be assisted by the use of booster stations to increase disinfectant concentrations throughout the network. However, identifying the appropriate dose at each station is an optimization problem. The aim is to minimize the total mass of disinfectant dosed and reduce the cost of disinfection along with potential taste, odor, or by-product problems, while maintaining a certain minimum residual in the network. The residual present in the water at any location is not only dependent on the amount of disinfectant added to the water, but also the hydraulics of the system and the resulting detention times. A number of previous studies have tackled this optimization problem, however, a review of current literature suggests that in many cases the hydraulics of the system have been held constant, or the WDSs considered were hypothetical systems with relatively few constraints. This study considers the booster disinfection dosing problem, including daily pump scheduling, for a real system in Sydney, Australia. Before the system can be optimized, a representative model is required to ensure useful results, and the many constraints on the daily operation system must be accounted for in the fitness function considered. The results from the optimization study indicate it is necessary to consider the hydraulics as well as the dosing regime in the optimization process, as cycling reservoir levels minimizes detention times, and hence, disinfectant residuals are maintained at the extremities of the network. Also, significant energy cost savings of up to 30% can be made by scheduling the pumping in the system in line with the off-peak electricity costs.