Resource recovery from wastewater in Austria: wastewater treatment plants as regional energy cells

This paper describes the estimation of total energy consumption and generation and the related degree of energetic self-sufficiency at certain Austrian WWTPs. Preliminary results regarding the development of a tool for evaluating and optimising on-site and externally supplied use of energy are presented. Finally, the possibilities of energy supply for neighbouring spatial structures are discussed briefly and conclusions drawn about the potential to develop WWTPs as regional energy cells.

Urban water networks as an alternative source for district heating and emergency heat-wave cooling

Three emergency cold recovery techniques are presented as a response to heat-waves: subway station cooling, ice production for individual cooling, and “heat-wave shelter” cooling in association with pavement-watering. The cold generation potential of each approach is assessed with a special consideration for mains water temperature sanitary limitations. Finally, technical obstacles and perspectives are discussed.

Recycling and Reuse of Treated Wastewater in Urban India

The document focuses on identifying the economic, financial and environmental benefits of wastewater recycling from the perspective of public spending. Also provides information on the evolution and current practices of wastewater recycling internationally and the international and national regulatory and policy frameworks that guide wastewater recycling. It presents possible strategies for city and state planners and policy makers to initiate the discourse on wastewater recycling and reuse.

The Roadmap to a Low-Carbon Urban Water Utility

An international guide to the WaCCliM approach

The Roadmap to a Low-Carbon Urban Water Utility presents utility managers with an approach to address their most pressing challenges, while reducing carbon emissions through
measures that either have a return on investment through energy or water savings, or that correspond to planned investments as part of the asset management plan to maintain or improve their services. Utilities adopting this approach are contributing to a carbon-neutral future, by instigating a change of mind-set, not only in urban water management but also by inspiring all other urban services through sharing the risks and the urgency to act to avoid aggravated impacts of climate change, of which water utilities are among the first victims: water scarcity, flooding and deteriorated water quality

Water reuse and reclamation: a contribution to energy efficiency in the water cycle

Water and energy are two of the most important resources of the 21st century. Water is required to supply energy and, at the same time, energy is required to supply water. In urban water management, the key factor is warm water heating. Depending on the quality of the raw water, the
provision of drinking water requires the application of different process technologies; the more complex the methods, the higher the energy demand. As in metropolitan areas, in particular, water consumption exceeds local availability, water pipelines are necessary with respective energy demand. The reuse of water can contribute significantly to conserve water and energy resources. Usually, the water to be reclaimed is supplied locally, making long-distance transport dispensable. By adjusting the process technology to the intended function (fit for purpose), it is possible to minimize the energy demand as well. Water use implies the input of energy (heat, chemically bound energy in form of organic matter) as well as nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.). In the context of implementing water reuse technologies, they can also be reclaimed.

Uso seguro del agua para el reúso

Gives a broad picture of wastewater treatment and reuse; its safe use as a fundamental aspect in water efficiency and security; technologies and biological processes for the treatment of wastewater destined for reuse, policies and regulations for the reuse of wastewater in some countries of Latin America (document is in Spanish).

Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States: A Case Study of the Energy-Water Nexus

Energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and biosolids incineration with electricity generation. We estimate that anaerobic digestion could save 628 to 4,940 million kWh annually in the United States. In Texas, anaerobic digestion could save 40.2 to 460 million kWh annually and biosolids incineration could save 51.9 to 1,030 million kWh annually.

Upgrading and methanisation projects at WWTP Avedøre

Enzymatic Biogas Upgrading
The techniques for removing CO2 from biogas are well known and available on the market in a number of ways to upgrade the biogas. Scrubbing with water or amine is most widely used methods. Common to all types is the large capital and operation cost (CAPEX & OPEX) in upgrading systems
A new technique is based on enzyme enhanced removal of the biogas’ content of CO2. The enzyme; Carbonic Anhydrase is well known as an accelerator for CO2 absorbtion and has been studied for decades. The enzyme is one of the fastest enzymes known in nature, and is present in all living organisms. Enzyme’s task is to transport CO2 in and out of the body tissue as lungs and muscles. The enzyme’s inability to remain active for longer periods in harsh industrial processes, has until now, prevented commercial use of the enzyme. Encapsulation of the enzyme in a gel has been tested in lab scale.
During spring 2015 Akermin and Ammongas will build a full-scale upgrading plant, that will handle the 3 million cubic meter biogas/year from WWTP Avedøre’s digesters.
The enzymes used in the project comes from Novozymes A/S,
In July 1, 2015 the biogas will be sent through the system and into the natural gas grid. The demonstration project will run until April 2017, and then will come a long period with commercial operation.

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