A decade of nitrous oxide (N2O) monitoring in full-scale wastewater treatment processes: A critical review
Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during the biological nitrogen removal (BNR) processes can significantly increase the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operations. Recent onsite measurement of N2O emissions at WWTPs have been used as an alternative to the controversial theoretical methods for the N2O calculation. The full-scale N2O monitoring campaigns help to expand our
knowledge on the N2O production pathways and the triggering operational conditions of processes. The accurate N2O monitoring could help to find better process control solutions to mitigate N2O emissions of wastewater treatment systems. However, quantifying the emissions and understanding the long-term behaviour of N2O fluxes in WWTPs remains challenging and costly.