A potential solution to reduce the pharmaceutical contamination of surface water with the ultimate objective of GHGs emission reduction
The removal or degradation of pharmaceutical compounds present in the urine or other real wastewater matrices mixed or contaminated with urine is a foremost necessity due to the frequent notifications of various multi-drug resistance based disease outbreaks in whole biosphere. Thus, these compounds are subsequently required to be removed from the urine matrix before their dissolution into the bulk or sewage wastewater streams. Therefore, urine collection at source followed by in-situ or separate ex-situ treatment has been proposed to effectively treat a limited volume of concentrated pharmaceutical compounds present in a small batch. The additional benefit of this source separated urine treatment is the possibility of efficiently recovering nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium based nutrients.