The nitrous oxides emission was measured over 7 months in the full-scale aerobic granular sludge plant in Dinxperlo, the Netherlands. Nitrous oxide concentrations were measured in the bulk liquid and the off-gas of the Nereda®reactor. Combined with the batch wise operation of the reactor, this gave a high information density and a better insight into N 2 O emission in general. The average emission factor was 0.33% based on the total nitrogen concentration in the influent. The yearly average emission factor was estimated to be between 0.25% and 0.30%. The average emission factor is comparable to continuous activated sludge plants, using flocculent sludge, and it is low compared to other sequencing batch systems. The variability in the emission factor increased when the reactor temperature was below 14 °C, showing higher emission factors during the winter period. A change in the process control in the winter period reduced the variability, reducing the emission factors to a level comparable to the summer period. Different process control might be necessary at high and low temperatures to obtain a consistently low nitrous oxide emission. Rainy weather conditions lowered the emission factor, also in the dry weather flow batches following the rainy weather batches. This was attributed to the first flush from the sewer at the start of rainy weather conditions, resulting in a temporarily increased sludge loading.
Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during the biological nitrogen removal (BNR) processes can significantly increase the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operations. Recent onsite measurement of N2O emissions at WWTPs have been used as an alternative to the controversial theoretical methods for the N2O calculation. The full-scale N2O monitoring campaigns help to expand our
knowledge on the N2O production pathways and the triggering operational conditions of processes. The accurate N2O monitoring could help to find better process control solutions to mitigate N2O emissions of wastewater treatment systems. However, quantifying the emissions and understanding the long-term behaviour of N2O fluxes in WWTPs remains challenging and costly.
Reuse and refurbishment of existing assets and materials is a great way to save capital carbon while meeting the changing demands of
This book aims to fill an important gap for different stakeholders to gain knowledge and skills in this area and equip the water community to further decarbonize the industry and build a carbon-free society and economy. The book goes beyond technology overviews, rather it aims to provide a system level blueprint for decarbonization
Good emission factors for estimating the Scope 1 emissions are lacking, water utilities have little experience in directly measuring these emissions, and the mathematical modelling of these emissions is challenging. Therefore, this book aims to help the water sector address the Scope 1 emissions by breaking down their pathways and influencing factors, and providing guidance on both the use of emission factors, and performing direct measurements of nitrous oxide and methane emissions from sewers and wastewater treatment plants.
The Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report assesses the impacts of climate change, looking at ecosystems, biodiversity, and human communities at global and regional levels. It also reviews vulnerabilities and the capacities and limits of the natural world and human societies to adapt to climate change.
The purpose of the Resilient Water Infrastructure Design Brief is to guide users on how resilience can be built into the engineering design of their project. With a focus on the three natural hazards most likely to affect water and sanitation infrastructure (droughts, floods, and high winds from storms), the document provides a six-step process to help users address weather and climate related challenges that are most likely to affect an infrastructure component at some point in its operational lifetime. In order to achieve both systems level resilience and infrastructure level resilience, this design brief should be used in tandem with other World Bank publications, such as the 2018 guidance document “Building the Resilience of WSS Utilities to Climate Change and Other Threats: A Road Map,” which emphasizes systems level resilience and analysis. The design brief highlights the relationship between these two documents and the unique function that each serves in improving overall resilience in the water sector. It also includes guidance for users to incorporate resilience design principles into projects’ appraisal documents and a sample module/task description for applying the two documents to an engineering design or feasibility study terms of reference.