This document provides a detailed explanation on the theoretical background of the third version of the web-based “Energy performance and Carbon Emissions Assessment and Monitoring” (ECAM v3.0) tool. The main assumptions and the key considerations that form the basis of the tool are explained. An overview of variables, performance indicators and related equations, as well as benchmark values and references are given. Additionally, the manual helps users with evaluating different scenarios for specific system configurations.
The User Manual was developed as an instrument to support the use of the ECAM tool (Energy Performance and Carbon Emissions Assessment and Monitoring). It can help users to estimate greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from the Urban Water Sector activities. This document is intended to be practical, accessible and “straight to the point”. To understand the conceptual framework of the ECAM tool, the user can consult the additional document “Methodology Guide”.
Climate change effects of intensifying magnitude and global challenges such as sea level rise, increasing temperatures or urbanization, threaten these cities. Now, there is a need for action to achieve resilient cities. A transversal and multidimensional solution is proposed, based on the collaboration among scientists who advance knowledge, operators and basin authorities (in public and private sectors) who innovate technically and socio-politically, and local politicians who can support new, fairer and more efficient models of water governance, in constant interaction with civil society.
The impacts of climate change on agriculture are projected to be significant in coming decades, so response strategies, and their likely costs, should be evaluated now. That is why this study produced an open-access, crop-climate-economic impact modeling platform for Latin America and the Caribbean, that can be extended to other regions, then modified and improved by users as new crop, climate, and economic datasets become available. The new platform projects the likely impacts of agroclimatic factors on crop productivity, on the basis of climate projections from two general circulation models, and couples it with an economic model to derive and evaluate a range of climate-change scenarios and likely agricultural productivity and economic impacts over the next several decades.
The report is part of a broader study, the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC), which has two objectives: (a) to develop a global estimate of adaptation costs for informing international climate negotiations; and (b) to help decision makers in developing countries assess the risks posed by climate change and design national strategies for adapting to it. This paper is one of a series of country-level studies, where national data were disaggregated to more local and sector levels, helping to understand adaptation from a bottom-up perspective. Ethiopia is heavily dependent on rainfed agriculture. Its geographical location and topography in combination with low adaptive capacity entail a high vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. Historically the country has been prone to extreme weather variability. Rainfall is highly erratic, most rain falls with high intensity, and there is a high degree of variability in both time and space. Since the early 1980s, the country has suffered seven major droughts five of which have led to famines in addition to dozens of local droughts. Major floods also occurred in different parts of the country in 1988, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 2006. Climate projections obtained from the GCMs referred to above suggest an increase in rainfall variability with a rising frequency of both severe flooding and droughts due to global warming.
Climate-related shocks and stresses are increasing in frequency and magnitude, causing damages to infrastructure systems and disruptions in the provision of services. Yet there is not sufficient investment needed to infrastructure systems’ climate resilience. The global urban infrastructure investment gap alone is estimated to be over US$4.5 trillion per year, with a premium of 9-27% is required to make infrastructure low carbon and climate- resilient Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) are a key entry-point to mobilise private sector finance to bridge this gap and must be resilient to climate change and work to build the resilience of the communities they serve. The Climate-Resilient
Infrastructure Officer (CRIO) Handbook provides tools and guidance on how PPP practitioners can best integrate and advocate for climate-resilient infrastructure.
This document intends to depict the existing situation in Chihuahua City, capital of the state of Chihuahua, in the northern region of Mexico, including its climate context, water situation, wastewater treatment infrastructure, and greenhouse gas emissions from this process. To achieve this goal, the methodology of this project comprises an extensive literature research on climate change, the context of Mexico, and international case studies; communication with organizations and authorities in Chihuahua that provide valuable data and information, and calculations based on literature and on the guidelines of WaCCliM.