Climate change, new patterns of land use, deforestation and urbanisation, among others, make water management in Latin America
and the Caribbean a challenge of significant complexity. Population growth also plays an important role: the region’s population has
grown steadily since 1950, to over 650 million today, adding pressure in terms of water availability.
Climate change, biodiversity loss and degradation of ecosystems are interdependent and pose significant societal challenges, threatening economic and social stability, public health and well-being. The World Economic Forum considers extreme weather- and climate-related events and biodiversity loss to be among the five most imminent global risks (WEF, 2020). Fighting climate change and preventing ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss are highly interdependent, requiring increased coherency between their respective policy agendas and actions.
The central question for this Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2022 (GAR2022) is how governance systems can evolve to better address the systemic risks of the future. In today’s crowded and interconnected world, disaster impacts increasingly cascade across geographies and sectors, as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and climate change are rapidly making clear. Despite progress, risk creation is outstripping risk reduction. Disasters, economic loss and the underlying vulnerabilities that drive risk, such as poverty and inequality, are increasing just as ecosystems and biospheres are at risk of collapse. Global systems are becoming more connected and therefore more vulnerable in an uncertain risk landscape. Such systems include ecologies, food systems, supply chains, economies and social
In addition to the already existing pressure on our freshwater resources, climate change may further decrease water availability. In this study, projections of future water resources, due to climate change, land use change and changes in water consumption have been assessed using JRC’s LISFLOOD water resources model.
The present report is the official inventory submission of the European Union (EU) for 2022 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and also under the Kyoto Protocol (KP).
Achieving water security is a challenge, particularly in this twenty-first century characterized by tremendous changes that affect water resources. High water stress is experienced by over 2 billion people, while 4 billion suffer from severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year, according to the 2019 World Water Development Report. To guarantee long-term water security, it is necessary to identify appropriate and timely adaptation measures focusing on vulnerable regions.
River flooding is the costliest natural disaster in Europe. Global warming and continued development in flood prone areas will progressively increase river flood risk. Direct damages from flooding could become six times present losses by the end of the century in case of no climate mitigation and adaptation. Keeping global warming well below 2°C would halve these impacts. Adequate adaptation strategies can further substantially reduce future flood impacts. In particular, implementing building-based damage reduction measures and reducing flood peaks using retention areas can lower impacts in a cost-efficient way in most EU countries, even to flood risk levels that are lower than today. Restoring natural wetlands and floodplains to retain excess water also improves the state of water and ecosystems.
This report approaches the question from the angle of energy use in the water sector rather than the better-known water requirements for the energy sector. The report also aims to provide an overview of possible levers to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of water and sanitation services and provides an analysis of how adaptation measures can embrace this low-carbon approach.
Hydrogen is a relatively new concept to the urban water industry. Various water utilities are considering or trialling new processes, and forming partnerships for further exploration. This time of discovery provides a unique opportunity for our industry to be able to proactively
engage and create awareness about the crucial role we have to play in supporting a hydrogen economy.