Reuse water distribution is typically performed by either conveying water in a separate pipe network from the drinking water, or transporting reuse water via trucks from the treatment facility to end users. In direct potable reuse, the recycled water can be introduced and distributed through the drinking water distribution system network. Therefore, the energy and GHG emissions from reuse water distribution will be via pumping (in pumped systems) and fuel consumption via truck deliveries.

Reuse Water Distribution energy and GHG emissions can also be affected by some of the other stages in the urban water cycle, particularly reuse water treatment, and end users. However, factors other than those within the individual urban water stages can impact this stage’s energy consumption and GHG emissions. These other factors include the following:

  • Energy source for heating hot water (renewable, fossil fuels, grid energy mix).
  • Pumping efficiency (pumped systems).
  • Pump operation / scheduling (pumped systems).
  • Recovering energy from water runing downhill (topographic energy).
Impacted by: Impacts:
Reuse Water Treatment

The capacity and location of the reuse water treatment facility impacts the pumping requirements of the distribution system.

End users

Access to reuse water dictates whether it is used and how much. The use of reuse water by end users offsets water consumption from the raw water source, which reduces the dependency on a potentially limited water resource and may reduces pumping and treatment energy.

End users

The reuse water demand by end users and their location compared to the treatment facility dictate the volumes to be distributed over which distance and the associated pumping or truck delivery requirements.

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