Modelling the bioenergy potential of municipal wastewater treatment plants

The present paper deals with designing a tool to answer the following research questions:
Which bioenergy potentials occur in different plant types? Which mass and
energy flows are related to the specific potentials? Which utilisation processes for
the potentials can lead to a high energy recovery efficiency of WWTS? Preliminary
analyses with the designed tool were focused on estimating the level of electric and
thermal energy self-sufficiency of different plant configuration scenarios including
or excluding digester gas and/or sludge utilisation units. First results based on the
level of self-sufficiency and associated energy and disposal costs show that a
digester gas and sewage sludge utilisation should be considered when designing
future WWTS.

Energy Recovery from the Water Cycle: Thermal Energy from Drinking Water

For a specific case, the effects of cold recovery from drinking water were analyzed on three decisive criteria: the effect on the GHG emissions, the financial implications, and the effect on the microbiological drinking water quality. It is shown that cold recovery from drinking water results in a 90% reduction of GHG emissions, and that it has a positive financial business case: Total Cost of Ownership reduced with 17%. The microbial drinking water quality is not affected, but biofilm formation in the drinking water pipes increased after cold recovery.

Resource recovery from wastewater in Austria: wastewater treatment plants as regional energy cells

This paper describes the estimation of total energy consumption and generation and the related degree of energetic self-sufficiency at certain Austrian WWTPs. Preliminary results regarding the development of a tool for evaluating and optimising on-site and externally supplied use of energy are presented. Finally, the possibilities of energy supply for neighbouring spatial structures are discussed briefly and conclusions drawn about the potential to develop WWTPs as regional energy cells.

Water reuse and reclamation: a contribution to energy efficiency in the water cycle

Water and energy are two of the most important resources of the 21st century. Water is required to supply energy and, at the same time, energy is required to supply water. In urban water management, the key factor is warm water heating. Depending on the quality of the raw water, the
provision of drinking water requires the application of different process technologies; the more complex the methods, the higher the energy demand. As in metropolitan areas, in particular, water consumption exceeds local availability, water pipelines are necessary with respective energy demand. The reuse of water can contribute significantly to conserve water and energy resources. Usually, the water to be reclaimed is supplied locally, making long-distance transport dispensable. By adjusting the process technology to the intended function (fit for purpose), it is possible to minimize the energy demand as well. Water use implies the input of energy (heat, chemically bound energy in form of organic matter) as well as nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.). In the context of implementing water reuse technologies, they can also be reclaimed.

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